Health Blog

Sugar Free Red Bull And Blood Pressire - Nmd.mk

does high blood sugar levels cause headaches Normal Blood Sugar Levels Chart For Adults Blood Sugar Monitor sugar free red bull and blood pressire Nmd.mk.

Women who experience gestational diabetes have the next threat of developing kind 2 diabetes sooner or later Regulation of blood glucose to regular or almost normal ranges, each earlier than and after meals Tight control of blood sugar has been proven to improve the survival of sufferers in intensive care units and to forestall long term complications of DM, eg, blindness, nerve injury, and kidney failure.

Diabetic retinopathy is a vital explanation for blindness, and occurs Nmd.mk sugar free red bull and blood pressire because of long term amassed injury to the small blood vessels in the retina Impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glycaemia are intermediate conditions in the transition between sugar free red bull and blood pressire Normal Blood Sugar Levels Chart For Adults normality and diabetes normal blood sugar rnage People with IGT or IFG are at high risk of progressing to kind 2 diabetes, although this is not inevitable This situation is characterised by high blood pressure, What Causes Diabetes does high blood sugar levels cause headaches excess protein in the urine, and swelling sugar free red bull and blood pressire in the legs and toes Preeclampsia can lead to severe and even life threatening issues for both mother and baby.

Sometimes having excessive blood sugar can really feel like a check you didn t pass Did a certain food or activity make your ranges go up or down Armed with that knowledge, you can also make adjustments and get closer to your goal vary more often.

The result is usually irritation in the gums, in addition to redness Dental infection can Low Blood Sugar Levels sugar free red bull and blood pressire develop, leading to ulcers, tooth loss, and more The greatest downside here is that an inflammatory response induced by one short term episode of hyperglycemia could last for a number of days.

The liver also can make sugar out of different things within the body, like amino acids, waste products and fats byproducts, in accordance with the University of California Remember to enter notes subsequent to your entries concerning your food plan and exercise so that you can see how they might be affecting your ranges Glycosylated hemoglobin test A value equal to or greater than 65 pc is confirmative This test holds significance because it conveys a three month average of blood sugar standing of your body.

CGM sensors are usually positioned on the upper arm or two inches below the belly button But taking samples from the same site repeatedly may cause issues or incorrect readings The focus of glucose within the blood, measured in milligrams of glucose per a hundred milliliters of blood Test your blood sugar after 10 minutes if it is improved and you are feeling better, move on to step three If there s little or no change, deal with once more with a sugary drink or snack and take one other studying after 10 to fifteen minutes We try to solely recommend merchandise that adhere to our philosophy of consuming higher whereas nonetheless sugar free red bull and blood pressire enjoying what you eat.

This check provides a mean of blood glucose during the last 2 to three months Patients with a Hb A1C larger than 65 48 mmol mol are identified as having DM Hb A1C is a handy, speedy, standardized take a look at and shows much less variation as a outcome of pre analytical variables.

However, over time most people with sort 2 diabetes would require oral drugs and or insulin to keep their blood glucose ranges under control Blood tests, for instance, What Causes Diabetes does high blood sugar levels cause headaches the hemoglobin A1c take a look at and urinalysis can diagnose the kind of diabetes the individual has Diabetes throughout being pregnant, referred to as gestational diabetes, ought to be managed by you and your OB GYN or another healthcare skilled Extremely excessive ranges of blood glucose within the blood could be harmful and life threatening if you have type 1, type 2, or gestational diabetes If you or does high blood sugar levels cause headaches somebody that you are with has extremely excessive blood glucose ranges, call 911 or go to your nearest Urgent Care or Emergency Department immediately.

The ample, unutilized glucose is wastefully excreted in the urine Fluctuations in blood glucose ranges can result in blurred imaginative and prescient In 2015, 47 of the whole burden of illness might have been prevented by decreasing exposure to the modifiable danger factor high blood plasma glucose levels Crucial to diabetes management is regular blood glucose monitoring This lets you perceive the relationship between sugar free red bull and blood pressire blood glucose, food, exercise and insulin in your physique.

Following supply, the baby could expertise low blood glucose ranges, significantly if the mother s blood glucose ranges were raised before the start People Low Blood Sugar Levels sugar free red bull and blood pressire with diabetes sugar free red bull and blood pressire have high blood glucose levels caused by a problem with the hormone insulin Several lab exams are useful in the administration of persistent DM Home glucose testing can show developments of hyper and hypoglycemia.

For example, while watermelon is taken into Nmd.mk sugar free red bull and blood pressire account a high glycemic food, it is low on glycemic load When it comes to assessing foods based on how they enhance your blood sugar, there s a device for that referred to as the does amla reduce blood sugar glycemic index The glycemic index assigns a number value to foods based mostly on how does red wine increase blood sugar quickly and how high they elevate your blood sugar.

Blood samples can even even be sourced from alternate sites such as the earlobe, heel, forearm, palm Alternate web site testing offers related outcomes to finger prick testing, especially within the fasting and two hour publish meal occasions Using alternate websites could additionally be much less painful but might have a deeper lance Check with the producer of the does high blood sugar levels cause headaches Blood Sugar Levels Chart By Age glucometer if the machine may be used for alternate web site testing When enough beta cells are gone, your pancreas stops making insulin or makes so little insulin that you have to take insulin to live.

The gadget routinely delivers the correct amount of insulin when the monitor indicates it is wanted For acceptable glycemic control in clients with diabetes in non critical care settings, capillary blood glucose testing is the beneficial technique of testing In sugar free red bull and blood pressire shoppers who are capable of consuming, blood glucose testing is really helpful earlier than meals and at bedtime, and each 4 6 hours in clients receiving enteral feeds and or are nil by oris.

Injection of antibodies vascular What Causes Diabetes does high blood sugar levels cause headaches endothelial progress issue anti does high blood sugar levels cause headaches Blood Sugar Levels Chart By Age VEGF brokers are typically in use as the initial remedy in cases of macular edema In cases of nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy, pan retinal photocoagulation is being used In cases of diabetic proliferative retinopathy, combined modalities of anti VEGF brokers and pan retinal photocoagulation are actually in use Sudden loss of imaginative and prescient can occur for several reasons in patients with diabetes mellitus, the commonest being vitreous hemorrhage Less frequent causes that merit consideration include vascular occlusion , retinal detachment, end stage glaucoma, and ischemic optic neuropathy If you could have sort 1 diabetes, you ll need insulin alternative, through injections or an insulin pump.

Most ladies who have gestational diabetes ship healthy babies However, untreated or uncontrolled blood sugar levels may cause problems for you and your baby To make certain your diabetes remedy plan is working, you ll need a special lab take a look at referred to as an A1C check This check exhibits your common blood sugar degree over the past three months.

The number of times that you examine your blood sugar will rely upon the sort of diabetes that you have sugar free red bull and blood pressire Normal Blood Sugar Levels Chart For Adults got and the kind of medication you take to deal with your diabetes For instance, individuals who take insulin could have to verify extra usually than individuals who do not take insulin Talk along with sugar free red bull and blood pressire your health care group about sugar free red bull and blood pressire how often to check your blood sugar If you sweat during work or train, that fluid needs to be replaced so you should drink extra.

In addition, some physicians advocate the use of medicines, corresponding to metformin , to assist prevent delay the headache due to high blood sugar onset of overt diabetes Unlike sort 1 diabetes, gestational diabetes usually happens too late to cause start defects Birth defects usually originate sometime in the course of the first trimester of pregnancy.

Diabetes could leave you more prone to skin problems, including bacterial and fungal infections The extra fatty tissue you ve, the extra resistant your cells turn out to be to insulin Certain international locations, corresponding to Finland and Sweden, have larger charges of type 1 best food to increase blood sugar diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes affects more than 463 million folks worldwide and is a number one explanation for morbidity and mortality across the globe MedlinePlus hyperlinks to well being info from the National Institutes of Health and other federal authorities businesses MedlinePlus also hyperlinks to well being info from non government Web sites See our disclaimer about external links and our high quality tips.

The key to treating it is to act quickly as treatable as it s, gestational diabetes can hurt you and your baby Work along with your doctor to keep your blood sugar ranges normal, What Causes Diabetes does high blood sugar levels cause headaches via particular meal plans and common bodily activity Your therapy can also embrace day by day blood sugar testing and insulin injections.

Having diabetes makes you 2 to 5 occasions more prone to develop cataracts It also makes you more more probably to get them at a youthful age Once your cat has been diagnosed, it s best to start insulin therapy as soon as potential Hypoglycemia A condition the place there could be too little glucose or sugar within the blood.

Pre diabetes significantly will increase the danger of growing kind 2 diabetes The good news is that, in sugar free red bull and blood pressire case you have prediabetes, you possibly can stop or delay the onset of full blown sort 2 diabetes by making way of life changes These embody consuming a nutritious diet, reaching and sustaining a wholesome weight, and exercising often Insulin is important to sufferers with sort 1 diabetes they cannot live with no supply of exogenous insulin Without insulin, sufferers with sort 1 diabetes develop severely elevated blood sugar levels.

The goal blood glucose levels differ somewhat bit relying in your kind of diabetes and between adults and kids There are two types of blood sugar levels that may be measured The first is the blood glucose degree we get from doing finger prick blood glucose tests These give us a studying of how high our ranges are at that very cut off date.

But stick together with your diabetes administration plan, and you may probably see a optimistic distinction in your A1C whenever you go to your physician Remember to include the carbohydrates from any alcohol you drink in your day by day carbohydrate depend If your blood sugar stage drops below your target vary, it s generally known as low blood sugar Low blood sugar also happens should you take too much insulin or an extra of a glucose lowering medicine that promotes the secretion of insulin by your pancreas.

It is necessary to note that even within the fasting state there is a low steady launch of insulin than fluctuates a bit and helps to maintain a steady blood sugar degree during fasting In regular people, such a regulatory system helps to keep blood glucose ranges in a tightly controlled range As outlined above, in patients with diabetes, the insulin is both absent, comparatively Fasting Blood Sugar sugar free red bull and blood pressire inadequate for the physique s needs, or not used properly by the body All of those elements cause elevated levels of blood glucose.

Managing kind 2 diabetes consists of a combine of way of life modifications and medication It s like a mean of your blood glucose over the previous 2 or three months At first, your pancreas makes extra insulin to try to get glucose into your cells But ultimately, it can t keep up, and the glucose builds up in your blood as an alternative Small Steps to Manage Your Blood Sugar Keeping up sugar free red bull and blood pressire with your blood sugar is essential, and there are several small ways you ll be able to help hold it regulated When sugar free red bull and blood pressire Normal Blood Sugar Levels Chart For Adults a fasting person has an extreme amount of glucose within the blood or too much insulin within the blood , they might have insulin resistance.

In basic, pregnant ladies with What Causes Diabetes does high blood sugar levels cause headaches sugar free red bull and blood pressire diabetes will wish to comply with individual tips provided by their endocrinologist We ll be talking concerning the great new know how of steady glucose monitoring with dietician Molly Downey from the well being technology firm, Nutrisense A nearer look at the impact cheese has on blood sugar ranges and how to still get pleasure from this scrumptious food whereas managing your blood sugar Learn the multiple variables impacting your baseline levels of blood sugar and discover out what s regular for your age range with our useful charts Nuts and nut butter even have plant proteins, sugar free red bull and blood pressire good fats, magnesium, and potassium.

The glucose in your blood serves as a primary supply of power for all the cells in your physique There are different molecules your physique could make for gasoline if wanted, like ketones, but we ll hold the give attention to glucose here for simplicity Anytime your symptoms don t match the quantity on your blood sugar meter, repeat the take a look at Don sugar free red bull and blood pressire t rely in your body to tell you in case your blood sugar is excessive or low many of the symptoms of highs and lows are similar People with diabetes are often reluctant to speak about it, but nerve damage from excessive blood sugar also can have an effect on sexual response and sugar free red bull and blood pressire function for women and men Don t be embarrassed to reach out to your physician for does high blood sugar levels cause headaches Blood Sugar Levels Chart By Age assist in any of those areas.

Due to this, glucose builds up in your blood and doesn t attain your cells Adding exercise and eating healthy might help with diabetes control and the prevention of secondary What Causes Diabetes does high blood sugar levels cause headaches diseases Those with kind 2 diabetes or gestational diabetes can treat their high blood sugar with a change in food regimen or train For those with excessive blood sugar ranges, it is vital to maintain monitor of your blood sugars at home every day These take a look at monitors are often supplied to diabetic sufferers so that they sugar free red bull and blood pressire ll handle their blood sugar ranges at residence on a daily basis They can be found to purchase online in case you are non diabetic but want to check in your ranges frequently for safety.

You must avoid each hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia and preserve an HbA1c of less than 7 Cessation of each smoking and alcohol has been discovered effective, along with cardio train It can be essential to look out for signs of malnutrition, whereas additionally guaranteeing you do not expertise hyperglycemia induced by a meal The use of oral pancreatic enzyme substitute remedy can sometimes Fasting Blood Sugar sugar free red bull and blood pressire be helpful notably when there are issues with the digestion of fat within the body.

In any of those instances, your blood glucose ranges might rise due to the modifications in your hormone levels Having high blood glucose additionally puts us vulnerable to mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress The former is a condition during which mitochondria fail to supply energy for cells The latter occurs when free radicals outnumber antioxidants in the physique and increase the chance of illness and other injury Phipps explains that, regardless of containing related quantities of carbohydrates, one serving of pasta might have a vastly totally different impact in your blood glucose ranges than one serving of rice Likewise, that serving of pasta could have an entirely completely different impact on your blood glucose ranges than your friends or even family members.

Glucose levels rise after meals for an hour or two by a number of grams and are often lowest in the morning, earlier than the primary meal of the day The morning ranges are the lowest because it follows around 6 to eight hours of fasting throughout the night The Guardian Connect System received its FDA approval in the 12 months 2018 The sensor is implanted target blood sugar levels under the pores and skin, and the transmitter is put in on the top.

This might be tough but hang on you will note the usefulness of what you study in this module during the subsequent modules where we ll talk about the incretins and therapy of hyperglycaemia You can view all of our diabetes care merchandise, and does ropinirole hcl high blood sugar search by completely different selections and standards The BD AutoShield Duo pen needle is a 5 mm pen needle that allows all kinds of clinical and affected person advantages in insulin injection BD Diabetes Care is the smarter, less complicated approach to diabetes administration The BD U 500 insulin syringe with the BD Ultra Fine 6mm Fasting Blood Sugar sugar free red bull and blood pressire needle supports patients taking Humulin R U 500 insulin.

Endocrinology is the specialty of medication that deals with hormone disturbances, and both endocrinologists and pediatric endocrinologists manage patients with diabetes People with diabetes can also be handled by household medicine or inner medicine specialists When issues arise, people with diabetes may be treated by other specialists, together with neurologists, gastroenterologists, ophthalmologists, surgeons, cardiologists, or others.

Some of the antibodies seen in sort 1 diabetes embrace anti islet cell antibodies, anti insulin antibodies and anti glutamic decarboxylase antibodies These antibodies may be detected in the majority of patients, and should assist decide which people are at risk for growing kind 1 diabetes The early symptoms of untreated diabetes are associated to elevated blood sugar ranges, and loss of glucose within the urine.

Type 2 diabetes can typically be sugar free red bull and blood pressire Normal Blood Sugar Levels Chart For Adults managed with wholesome consuming and regular exercise alone, but may require medicines or insulin therapy Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune illness and is also called insulin dependent diabetes People with sort 1 diabetes aren t in a place to produce their very own insulin and cannot regulate their blood sugar because their physique is attacking the pancreas Roughly 10 per cent of people dwelling with diabetes have sort 1, insulin dependent diabetes Type 2 diabetes is sugar free red bull and blood pressire the commonest diagnosis, adopted by kind 1 diabetes Gestational diabetes happens throughout being pregnant, and is often momentary.

Medical bills for individuals with diabetes are over two occasions higher than these for people who do not have diabetes Remember, these numbers reflect solely the inhabitants within the United States Diabetes additionally Fasting Blood Sugar sugar free red bull and blood pressire is a crucial factor in accelerating the hardening and narrowing of the arteries , leading to strokes, coronary coronary heart disease, and other large blood vessel diseases Provide culturally appropriate prevention, education, and way of life helps for all Aboriginal people Develop a health promotion, disease prevention technique for the complete population Monitor your blood glucose often as really helpful by your physician.

Babies of mothers who ve gestational diabetes have a higher danger of developing weight problems and kind 2 diabetes later in life If you developed gestational diabetes whenever you have been pregnant, your threat of growing prediabetes and type 2 diabetes increases If you gave delivery to a child weighing greater than 9 Nmd.mk sugar free red bull and blood pressire kilos , you re also susceptible to type 2 diabetes Diabetes symptoms differ depending on how a lot your blood sugar is elevated.

The ranges may be checked by pricking a finger to get a drop of blood and putting it on a glucose meter Research shows that over 50 who attempt to estimate their blood sugar level reading are incorrect This may be as a result of over underlying medical situations that did not know they had or poor lack of judgement Therefore, this implies it is extremely necessary to test at residence to examine in on your ranges often to keep away from any pointless future complications.

It contains a unique blend of over 15 herbs, including things like yarrow flower and cinnamon Doctors could prescribe insulin injections or other medicine to assist manage blood sugar levels throughout the day Be sure to verify along with your doctor earlier than beginning any new treatment Nicotine has a similar impact as alcohol on your body s insulin production Tobacco merchandise enhance your blood sugar and enhance your threat of diabetes.

Normal blood sugar or blood glucose ranges are between 80 and 130 mg dL That quantity is an average of what is regular for people with diabetes When blood sugar ranges are too high, the individual might experience hyperglycemia Hyperglycemia could be characterized by excessive thirst and urination, blurred vision, or shakiness, sweating, dizziness, or confusion When the does high blood sugar levels cause headaches Blood Sugar Levels Chart By Age individual has low blood glucose, they could expertise hypoglycemia which can be characterised by sweating, dizziness, or confusion.

Regular blood sugar monitoring is the most important factor you are able to do to manage kind 1 or kind 2 diabetes You ll be able to see what makes your numbers go up or down, such as eating completely different meals, taking your medicine, or being bodily active With this information, you possibly can work together with your health care staff to make decisions about your best diabetes care plan.

Adding these to your food plan reduces your risk of excessive blood sugar, as they re digested a lot slower than easy carbohydrates Zanini says high blood glucose treatment is a hyper individualized process based on a number of personal details These include age, pre existing circumstances, current medicines, and current blood glucose value But, a number of overarching way of life changes might help scale back high blood glucose If you track your blood sugar stage frequently along with exercise and food regimen then you can use those food plan and train that keep your blood sugar at the right level and keep wholesome You can even seek the assistance of with your doctor to get a better care plan.

You aren t born with .

What Are Good Readings For Blood Sugar

diabetes, however Type 1 diabetes often seems in childhood Prediabetes and diabetes develop slowly over time years Gestational diabetes occurs during pregnancyScientists do imagine that genetics might play a role or contribute to the are there any symptoms of high blood sugar development of Type 1 diabetes Something in the environment or a virus could trigger its improvement.

Ideally, glucose ranges should be sugar free red bull and blood pressire maintained at ninety to a hundred thirty mg dL and HbA1c at lower than 7 While What Causes Diabetes does high blood sugar levels cause headaches glucose management is critical, excessively aggressive administration may result in hypoglycemia, which can have opposed or fatal outcomes The pathology of DM can be unclear since several components can usually contribute to the disease Hyperglycemia alone can impair pancreatic beta cell perform and contributes to impaired insulin secretion.

With this in thoughts, new studies are beginning to concentrate on strategies that may assist within the management of glucagon sensitivity and resistance within the human physique Yeast infections within the genital area are also extra widespread in sufferers with high blood sugar ranges The high blood sugar creates an environment for Candida albicans to overgrow It causes soreness, ache, itching, and different signs in the genital space It isn t simply stress and sleep that can trigger fluctuations in hormones Illness, physical pain and trauma, menopause or menstruation can as properly.

Diabetes was also more common in males 50 than females 38 after controlling for age Diabetes is a persistent situation marked by Low Blood Sugar Levels sugar free red bull and blood pressire high ranges of glucose within the blood It is caused by the physique being unable to supply insulin or to use insulin successfully, or each If you have diabetes, your eyes are in danger from diabetic retinopathy, a situation that may result in sight loss if it isn t treated.

Over time, diabetes can lead to blindness, kidney failure, sugar free red bull and blood pressire Normal Blood Sugar Levels Chart For Adults and nerve damage These forms of harm are the result of damage to small vessels, known as microvascular disease This determine reveals the impact of diabetes inside selected population teams in 2017 18 Rates were 12 23 times as high in Remote and really distant areas as Nmd.mk sugar free red bull and blood pressire Major cities.

While insulin resistance is a component of T2DM, the full extent of the illness outcomes when the patient has inadequate manufacturing of insulin to compensate for his or her insulin resistance T2DM entails a more insidious onset where an imbalance between insulin levels and insulin sensitivity causes a functional deficit of insulin Insulin resistance is multifactorial but commonly develops from weight problems and getting older Review the therapy issues and customary complications of diabetes mellitus But with diabetes, several major issues can go incorrect to cause diabetes.

The result is the absolute destruction of beta cells, and sugar free red bull and blood pressire consequentially, insulin is absent or extremely low Islets of LangerhansThe islets of Langerhans are answerable for the endocrine operate of the pancreas Each islet accommodates beta, alpha, and delta cells which would possibly be answerable is carbalose raise blood sugar for the secretion of pancreatic hormones Beta cells secrete insulin, a well characterized hormone that plays an necessary position in regulating glucose sugar free red bull and blood pressire metabolism.

Bariatric surgery is another therapy choice that s an oblique therapy for diabetes Bariatric surgical procedure is an choice when you have Type 2 diabetes, are overweight and considered a great candidate for this kind of surgery Much improved blood glucose ranges are seen in people who have misplaced a big quantity of weight If you ve diabetes, your body isn t able to properly process and use glucose from the meals you eat.

Well, blood sugar tablets glycated particles aren t capable of perform their features adequately anymore We have consultants doing research and helping individuals, and animals secure from diabetes Younger T1D patients hyperthyroidism blood sugar require continuous support by an adult parents, college personnel, and coaches in sports by way of sharing with specific alert settings Speed is an important factor for deciding the efficiency of the CGM machine The greatest machines ship readings in 10 seconds and fewer Choose a machine that can sugar free red bull and blood pressire Normal Blood Sugar Levels Chart For Adults devour much less time and doesn t mess up with your schedule.

Even performing 15 to 20 min of armchair exercises daily can help the pregnant woman scale back hyperglycemia without rising the danger of inducing uterine contractions If euglycemia just isn t achieved by diet remedy and exercise inside 10 days, insulin is began excellent blood sugar level Pregnant ladies require three to 4 instances the amount of insulin needed by a nonpregnant woman Often one dose of long acting insulin at bedtime is enough, with rapid acting insulins, ie, common insulin, insulin aspart recombinant , or insulin lispro recombinant used to aid optimal glycemic management Insulin glargine , as quickly as used for gestational diabetes, is not beneficial for pregnant ladies Because stress can considerably elevate blood glucose levels, stress management is a vital part of remedy.

You can help your body s pure capacity to control your blood sugar with a supporting supplement While these dietary supplements won t remedy diabetes or prediabetes, they are often helpful alongside a dietary change Menstrual cycles trigger fluctuations in both hormones and blood sugar levels High blood sugar is a significant downside that could doubtlessly enhance the sugar free red bull and blood pressire Normal Blood Sugar Levels Chart For Adults chance of heart illness, heart assault, stroke, kidney injury, and lots of other well being issues Diabetic hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome, or HHS, is a complication from very excessive blood sugars in individuals with kind 2 diabetes Microvascular injury is defined as harm to small blood vessels, and it s a standard consequence of excessive blood sugar.

Conducted at any time throughout the day a outcome under 57 is taken into account normal A end result larger than 57 is taken into account a sign of prediabetes, and a result of 65 or greater indicates sort 2 diabetes Conducted after fasting for eight hours a studying of a hundred mg dL or extra is considered high or a sign of prediabetes, while a studying of at least 126 mg dL signifies sort 2 diabetes However, for optimal well being, we recommend aiming for a fasting glucose value beneath ninety mg dL Phipps notes to avoid these risks, catching excessive blood glucose early on, then taking motion to treat it is extremely important.

This is one other scientifically formulated supplement that features 20 .

Who Diabetes Diagnosis Criteria

different components It features a unique combination of components like licorice, cayenne, and juniper berry For those trying to shed pounds, this complement could be notably useful as a result of it improves your metabolic price This complement may be helpful for those trying to lose weight because it helps regulate mobile metabolism as properly Blood sugar levels tend to rise in an hour or two following a blood sugar three hours after eating meal.

In people with self reported diabetes, only fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c have been measured Type 1 diabetes is an immune system illness with some genetic element Nmd.mk sugar free red bull and blood pressire This sort of diabetes can t be reversed with conventional remedies Providing insulin via an artificial pancreas is the most advanced method of maintaining glucose within sugar free red bull and blood pressire a tight vary at all times most closely mimicking the physique.

Exercising no much less than 150 minutes a week and shedding about 7 of your physique weight may prevent or delay type 2 diabetes An synthetic pancreas can be called closed loop insulin supply The implanted gadget links a steady glucose monitor, which checks blood sugar ranges every 5 minutes, to an insulin pump.

Others require that you verify your sugar free red bull and blood pressire Normal Blood Sugar Levels Chart For Adults blood sugar by operating the receiver over the sensor periodically People residing with diabetes, notably these with sort 1 diabetes, may blood sugar level 260 means also choose to use CGMs These units measure your blood sugar each jiffy utilizing a sensor inserted under the skin These sensors are typically worn for per week or two before they need to be changed.

In any case, the result is extra sugar hanging Fasting Blood Sugar sugar free red bull and blood pressire around the bloodstream, making you feel like total crap in the short time period and placing your health at risk in the lengthy run Check the instructions in your meter and test strips to search out out what substances may affect the What Causes Diabetes does high blood sugar levels cause headaches testing accuracy Evaluation of accuracy of ambulatory glucose profile in an outpatient setting in children with type 1 diabetes Safe and appropriate use of insulin and different antihyperglycemic brokers in hospital 35Kutz TL, Roszhart JM, Hale M, Dolan V, Suchomski G, Jaeger C Improving complete look after sufferers with diabetes 28Kikuta K, Masamune A, Shimosegawa T Impaired glucose tolerance in acute pancreatitis.

Learn the causes, signs, therapies, and issues of metabolic syndrome with our fast quiz Ferritin Blood Test Ferritin is a protein in the physique that is used to retailer iron The ferritin blood test can detect elevated or low ranges of ferritin in the physique, which may indicate disease corresponding to hemochromatosis, rheumatoid arthritis, certain cancers, anemia, or iron deficiency Creatinine Blood Test Creatinine is a chemical waste molecule that s generated from muscle metabolism Creatinine is produced from creatine, a molecule of main significance for vitality production in muscular tissues Creatinine has been discovered to be a reasonably dependable indicator of kidney operate.

The plentiful, unutilized glucose is wastefully excreted in the urine Fluctuations in blood glucose levels can lead to blurred vision In 2015, four7 of the entire burden of illness may have been prevented by decreasing publicity sugar free red bull and blood pressire to the modifiable threat issue high blood plasma glucose levels Crucial to diabetes administration is regular blood glucose monitoring This helps you to perceive the connection does tupelo honey affect blood sugar between blood glucose, food, train and insulin in your physique.

Following supply, the baby may expertise Nmd.mk sugar free red bull and blood pressire low blood glucose levels, particularly if the mother s blood glucose foods that lower blood sugar spikes levels have been raised earlier than the start People with diabetes have excessive blood glucose levels brought on by an issue with the hormone insulin Several lab exams are useful in the management of chronic DM Home glucose testing can present trends of hyper and hypoglycemia.

This cannula allows for frequent sampling of blood sugar free red bull and blood pressire glucose ranges Attached to it is a transmitter that sends the info to a pager like device This device has sugar free red bull and blood pressire a visible display that permits the wearer to see, not only the current glucose studying, but additionally the graphic tendencies In some units, the rate of change of blood sugar is also shown Certain fashions will alarm if the speed of change signifies the wearer is Fasting Blood Sugar sugar free red bull and blood pressire at risk for dropping or rising blood glucose too rapidly One model is specifically designed to interface with their insulin pumps.

See a GP if you think you retain getting symptoms of a low blood sugar level They can prepare some easy exams to examine if your blood sugar sugar free red bull and blood pressire Normal Blood Sugar Levels Chart For Adults degree is low and attempt to discover out what s causing it Blood sugar charts are developed by skilled endocrinologists It reveals the level of sugar within the blood for an individual of a sure age.

Thus, if the affected person is insulin resistant, they need to take action High blood sugar damages nerves and interferes with their ability to send indicators, which causes diabetic neuropathy Damage of this type usually impacts eyes, kidneys, toes, and different components of a patient s physique.

It shouldn t be used in place of the recommendation of your physician or other qualified healthcare provider With alcohol and blood sugar, blood sugar can enhance, then lower to a dangerous level This happens as a result of alcohol is high in sugar, causing an preliminary spike.

They aren t intended to diagnose, high blood sugar in chilren treatment, stop or sugar free red bull and blood pressire deal with any illness or situation This program and its providers should not be used for the monitoring or administration of diabetes The NutriSense packages and companies are to assist members uncover and attain their well being potential DKA could be fatal if left untreated, so anybody experiencing these symptoms ought to search care instantly.

The device routinely delivers the correct amount of insulin when the monitor indicates it is wanted For applicable glycemic management in clients with diabetes in non critical care settings, capillary blood glucose testing is the beneficial method of testing In purchasers who are capable of consuming, blood glucose testing is beneficial best blood sugar meters walmart earlier than sugar free red bull and blood pressire meals and sugar free red bull and blood pressire at bedtime, and every 4 6 hours in purchasers receiving enteral feeds and or are nil by oris.

Reduce your cravings for sweets by slowly reduce the sugar in your diet a little at a time to give your style buds time to adjust Packaged and fast foods, particularly these high in sugar, baked items, sweets, chips, desserts Despite in style perception, diabetes isn t attributable to consuming an extreme amount of sugar free red bull and blood pressire sugar, and other people don t give themselves diabetes Diabetes Canada can help sugar free red bull and blood pressire you on your journey with a selection of resources and instruments If you may be considering of starting insulin, listed here are some things you must know.

Although some persons are more prone to these complications including people with illnesses corresponding to coronary heart illness and diabetes serious cardiovascular events aren t happening solely in these people Insulin resistance is attributable to excess fatty acids and proinflammatory cytokines, which ends up in impaired glucose transport and will increase fat breakdown Since there is an insufficient response or manufacturing of insulin, the physique responds by inappropriately increasing glucagon, thus further contributing to hyperglycemia.

The macula is the a part of the retina that provides you sharp, clear vision Laser surgery can typically be used to treat or slow down retinopathy if found early People who ve diabetes should have a watch exam every year.

It s the part of the eye that is delicate to mild and sends messages to your brain about what you see Diabetes can injury and weaken the small blood vessels in the retina When the blood vessels of your retina are damaged, fluid can leak from them and trigger swelling in your macula.

Some things that might be dangerous to folks with diabetes are smoking cigarettes, drinking alcohol in excess, and eating giant parts of unhealthy foods According to research from Diabetic Care, squeezing your finger earlier than testing your blood sugar levels can intrude with the outcomes It can decrease your reading as opposed to growing it or preserving it the same It is advised to avoid squeezing your finger so that you can get an correct studying After you ve consumed a sugary drink or snack, it is recommended to check your blood sugar stage again If it has increased and you feel better then you need to consume a carbohydrate containing meal, similar to bread, biscuits or milk.

This will contain a small prick in your finger so obtain a blood pattern Managing blood sugar levels is straightforward to sugar free red bull and blood pressire do at sugar free red bull and blood pressire residence if you realize the best measures to take Treatments are completely different for top and low blood sugar ranges Causes of low blood sugar levels are very totally different and are as important to be aware of, as they re in fact easier to regulate.

While the significance of constructing food decisions that can keep blood sugar levels in verify can t be understated, additionally it is important to notice that discovering what works is an individual alternative We share jalapeno peppers affect blood sugar these ideas on meals that won t spike your blood sugar as a guide and inspiration when everyday meals selections are made Below are 10 foods that won t spike your blood sugar levels and a few ideas for incorporating them into your meals.

Foods excessive in glucose embody most carbohydrates and a handful of proteins and fats Most meals contain glucose as it is merely a pure sugar that happens in most dietary forms However, it is carbohydrates that contain Nmd.mk sugar free red bull and blood pressire the most sugar and 100 percent of it turns into glucose, by way of the process mentioned above, as quickly as consumed The focus sugar free red bull and blood pressire of glucose present within the blood will decide your blood sugar level It s chemically identical to glucose however is produced from corn and rice, based on Healthline It is commonly used as a sweetener in baking products and in processed meals.

This results in elevated urine glucose, which in turn leads to sugar free red bull and blood pressire excessive loss of fluid and electrolytes in the urine Lack of insulin also causes the inability to store fats and protein along with breakdown of sugar free red bull and blood pressire existing fat and protein shops This dysregulation, ends in the method of ketosis and the release of ketones into the blood Ketones turn the blood acidic, a condition referred to as diabetic ketoacidosis Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.

After time, if manufacturing decreases and insulin can t be released as vigorously, hyperglycemia develops There is no definite approach to know in case you have diabetes with out undergoing blood tests to find out your blood glucose levels Many more individuals have blood sugar levels above the conventional range, however not excessive sufficient to be recognized as having diabetes During pregnancy, some women have such excessive levels of blood glucose that their physique is unable to produce sufficient insulin to absorb all of it Both the affected person and family are taught to establish indicators of dehydration and to report indicators of severe Low Blood Sugar Levels sugar free red bull and blood pressire dehydration and impending hypovolemia.

All of the vitamins the fetus receives come directly from the mom s blood If the maternal blood has too much glucose, the pancreas of the fetus senses the excessive glucose levels and produces extra insulin in an attempt to use this glucose Even when the mom has gestational diabetes, the fetus sugar free red bull and blood pressire is able to produce all of the insulin it wants.

Pre diabetes significantly increases sugar free red bull and blood pressire Normal Blood Sugar Levels Chart For Adults the chance of creating sort 2 diabetes The excellent news is that, if you have prediabetes, you can prevent or delay the onset of full sugar free red bull and blood pressire blown type 2 diabetes by making way of life changes These embody consuming a healthy diet, reaching and sustaining a healthy weight, and exercising often Insulin is significant to sufferers with sort 1 diabetes they can t stay with no supply of exogenous insulin Without insulin, patients with sort 1 diabetes develop severely elevated blood sugar ranges.

Thanks to all authors for making a web page that has been read 56,955 occasions This article was co authored by Damaris Vega, MD and by wikiHow staff author, Madeleine Criglow She then accomplished a residency in Internal Medicine and sugar free red bull and blood pressire a fellowship in Endocrinology, Diabetes, Mineral, and Metabolism at The University of Texas Southwestern Medical School Dr Vega has been acknowledged for excellent patient care a quantity of times by the National Committee for Quality Assurance and acquired the Patients Choice Award in 2008, 2009, and 2015 Dr Vega can be the founder and CEO of Houston Endocrinology Center in addition to a principal investigator for multiple scientific trials at Juno Research, LLC Another fascinating research was published Fasting Blood Sugar sugar free red bull and blood pressire within the Journal of Cell, describing a state of fasting as a potential method for enhancing pancreatic well can i drink sugar free before fasting blood test being.

If you discover fatigue regularly occurring right after you eat, though especially a carb heavy meal it could have to do with rising blood sugar levels People will say, one typical symptom of hypoglycemia is I wish to nap after lunch, or I simply can not open my eyelids after dinner, often after consuming one thing like lots of pasta or potatoes or sweets, Dr Hatipoglu says To be clear, there s nothing mistaken with eating these foods You may need to examine your blood glucose earlier than meals and get insulin protection for meals.

However, in case you have sugar ranges larger than that then it is a sign of diabetes Recommended blood glucose ranges have a degree of interpretation for every particular person and you must focus on this blood sugar drops after pancakes together with your healthcare team If you should take drugs that will affect the accuracy of the readings, your well being care supplier might advocate double checking your CGM outcomes with a normal blood sugar meter Check along with your health care provider about utilizing a CGM when you re pregnant, on dialysis or critically unwell, as these circumstances might affect the blood sugar readings from a CGM One approach to check one s own sugar degree is by pricking a finger with a lancet and putting the blood that comes out onto sugar free red bull and blood pressire a test strip, then inserting the strip into a glucose monitor.

Hemoglobin A1c Test Hemoglobin What Causes Diabetes does high blood sugar levels cause headaches A1c or HbA1c is a protein on sugar free red bull and blood pressire the floor of red blood cells The HbA1c take a look at is used to watch blood sugar ranges in folks with type 1 and kind 2 diabetes over Low Blood Sugar Levels sugar free red bull and blood pressire time HbA1c ranges could be affected by insulin use, fasting, glucose intake , or a mixture of these and other factors.

Medication may be needed if adequate glucose control cannot be achieved with way of life modifications alone Testing must be repeated at 24 to 28 weeks gestation if the first screening is adverse Diabetes mellitus is a continual metabolic dysfunction characterised by persistent hyperglycemia It could also be due to impaired insulin secretion, resistance to peripheral actions of insulin, or each In this review, we offer an outline of the pathogenesis, diagnosis, clinical presentation, and rules of administration of diabetes.

Our findings indicate that diabetes is an important well being downside in China Continuing surveillance and effective control are wanted to cut back its burden Secondly, a similar examine design and statistical if insulin is high then blood sugar is strategies to those used previously make our findings more comparable with historic knowledge.

Some African American diabetic sufferers have an atypical presentation that simulates sort 1 diabetes, however their subsequent medical course is typical of kind 2 diabetes There is a paucity of evidence based information on pharmacological remedy for African American diabetic patients However, primary care of the African American diabetic patient may be tremendously assisted by structured disease management protocols The use of case management nurses, diabetes educators, and different well being care professionals is especially efficient in enhancing glycaemic control within the African American diabetic community Prediabetes happens when blood sugar levels are higher than they should be, but not excessive enough to officially be recognized as diabetes.

Although there is not any treatment for diabetes, the condition can be managed by medicine and or insulin, and by making wholesome lifestyle choices According to the NDR, 31,300 individuals began using insulin to deal with their diabetes in 2018 In 2011 12, an estimated 55 of adults with known diabetes achieved the target level for HbA1c based mostly on measured data from the 2011 12 Australian Health Survey.

Some sufferers also can complain of numbness or tingling of their arms or feet or with blurred imaginative and prescient Review the significance of improving care coordination amongst interprofessional team members to enhance outcomes for sufferers affected by diabetes blood sugar levels monitor mellitus sort 2 High blood sugar can damage the tiny blood vessels within the backs of your eyes You re as much as 5 times extra more likely to get heart illness or have a stroke You re also can dehydration cause high blood sugar in diabetics at excessive danger of blocked blood vessels and chest pain.

For a model new patient with diabetes, you should check blood sugar levels frequently When you document blood levels, you ll have why cf patients check blood sugar before meals the ability to monitor how medicines, eating habits, and other physical actions affect your health Doctors additionally advise tracking your BP alongside if you have a low or hypertension drawback People who ve undergone gastric bypass have seen important enhancements of their blood sugar levels However, this sugar free red bull and blood pressire process s long term dangers and advantages for sort 2 diabetes aren t yet known.

These mixed factors play a key role in regulating blood sugar ranges Fish additionally do not contain any carbohydrates, so their glycemic index score is zero But, that doesn t imply all digestible carbohydrates work the identical Our our bodies digest high fiber meals slower, making the rise in blood sugar more gradual as a substitute of 1 huge spike Soluble fiber additionally helps reduce blood sugar levels by enhancing insulin sensitivity Processed carbohydrates, however, trigger those sharp spikes in blood sugar and boost triglyceride ranges.

They also comprise beta sugar free red bull and blood pressire Normal Blood Sugar Levels Chart For Adults glucans that may assist preserve glycemic management and improve insulin sensitivity Steel cut oats specifically have a low glycemic index and can result in a extra even glucose response Cod liver oil is a Vitamin D rich complement that helps glucose management by supporting the hormones that regulate insulin effectiveness in your physique This elevated insulin effectiveness can shield you from sort 2 diabetes and might decrease your hemoglobin A1C value Prebiotic foods can play sugar free red bull and blood pressire Normal Blood Sugar Levels Chart For Adults a role in many well being conditions Prebiotics are a sort of non digestible fiber which are commonly present in many different foods.

You might start noticing feelings of tingling, numbness, or burning in your hands, feet, arms, and legs, per the Mayo Clinic You might suppose it would be obvious should you had high blood sugar, however it s actually totally potential for signs of excessive blood sugar to fly under the radar There are lots of people who don t understand they have excessive blood sugar, so if so for you, you definitely aren t alone Also, you need to by no means use results from an alternate sampling website to calibrate a continuous glucose monitor , or in insulin dosing calculations medication for hypoglycemia If your meter malfunctions, you want to tell your health care provider and contact the corporate that made your meter and strips Before you take a look at your blood glucose, you must learn and perceive the directions for your meter.

This could cause you to get up during the night or cause headaches, tiredness or damp sheets in the morning Estimated average glucose is quinoa good for diabetes , in the same type of numbers as your day to sugar free red bull and blood pressire day blood sugar readings A blood sample is drawn in a fasting take a look at after you sugar free red bull and blood pressire go without eating for no less what to eat for lower blood sugar than 8 hours, and even in a single day It is advisable to record your blood and insulin levels in log sheets as suggested in your doctor s notice.

It is beneficial to severely decrease your daily carbohydrates consumption Symptoms could differ totally different individuals might experience completely different symptoms You should login to Cloudflare and check the error logs for wholesomealivecom.

A relative or absolute insulin deficiency ultimately leads to weight reduction Diabetes impacts roughly 30three million folks 94 of the population within the United States, while another estimated 841 million folks have prediabetes and don t know it If you think you could have prediabetes or diabetes contact a health care skilled.

In uncommon circumstances of uncontrolled diabetes, cats might expertise injury to the nerves within the hind limbs, resulting in a plantigrade stance of the hind limbs This is not painful, and can often resolve with treatment Kidney dialysis A process where blood is filtered via a dialysis machine to remove waste products that may usually be removed by the kidneys The filtered blood is then circulated again into the patient Insulin A hormone or chemical produced by the pancreas, insulin is needed by cells of the physique in order to use glucose , the physique s primary source of power African American kids have a lower prevalence of insulin resistance than white kids.

The clinicians should ask the patient bout any current pores and skin changes of their feet throughout every go to The diabetic foot exam, including the monofilament test, must be a part of the routine bodily exam African American adults, adolescents, and children have a excessive threat for, and a excessive prevalence of .

What Is The Fasting Blood Sugar Test

insulin resistance and overt kind 2 diabetes mellitus African American diabetic sufferers receive lower high quality well being care, are less nicely controlled, and consequently have a better price of issues than white diabetic sufferers.

In extreme instances it may lead to lack of consciousness and even mind injury At fasting means earlier than breakfast normal blood sugar levels can cause spts blood sugar stage is less than a hundred mg dL On the other hand, at random means after two hours of eating regular blood sugar level is lower than a hundred and forty mg dL.

Find out what precisely a vacation well being hangover is, the symptoms you could expertise, tips about the means to keep away from one, and what you are in a position to do if it s too late Explore whether or not or not dairy and dairy different products are actually great for our body s capability to control blood sugar Laughing has some wonderful health advantages, from boosting your immune system to preventing stress.

To decrease your blood sugar levels, attempt cutting sugar free red bull and blood pressire back on easy carbs so that they are simply an occasional deal with quite than a major a half of your diet Diabetic pancreatectomy refers to the development of what s referred to as diabetes type 3c it is associated to a partial pancreatectomy There are not any common guidelines set out for the situation, however research do find that a mixture of therapies is useful.

Sometimes people expertise a quick heartbeat and a few symptoms could make symptoms of low blood sugar flu shaking an individual seem like drunk A severely low blood sugar may find yourself in unconsciousness, seizures, coma or demise particularly when a low occurs through the night More than two unexpected blood sugar readings over 250 mg dL require medical consideration Testing for ketones is really helpful for individuals with Type 1 diabetes and those with Type 2 diabetes on insulin remedy who are having vomiting and signs of severe sickness Kara and I dive deep into every thing that goes into steady glucose monitoring We speak about how she received the concept, and what sparked her inspiration to create this wonderful de.

The ranges could be checked by pricking a finger to get a drop of blood and putting it on a glucose meter Research reveals that over 50 who try to estimate their blood sugar degree reading are incorrect This may be due to over underlying medical situations that did not know they had or poor lack of judgement Therefore, this implies it is rather essential to test at home to verify in in your ranges regularly to avoid any pointless future complications.

This truth sheet addresses the AMP analysis plan for kind 2 diabetes If you have diabetes, your doctor could screen you for melancholy or cognitive impairment Older adults with diabetes are at gestational diabetes low blood sugar fetus health larger risk for these conditions, in contrast with others their age who wouldn t have diabetes.

However, they do not seem to be going to be sugar free red bull and blood pressire a whole remedy in your condition Blood sugar dietary supplements comprise a selection of elements While most supplements use berberine or cinnamon to reduce back your blood sugar ranges, this isn t true for all dietary supplements Some use quite so much of other elements which have various ranges of effectiveness With a 100 satisfaction guarantee, there is not a purpose not to give this complement a strive.

Fats decelerate the digestion of carbohydrates, which causes a delayed rise in blood sugar High blood sugar may be a problem as a outcome of it usually results in Low Blood Sugar Levels sugar free red bull and blood pressire sugar crashes, which aren t any fun symptoms low blood sugar 3rd trimester embrace fatigue, complications and the jitters So, eat meals balanced with protein, fat and carbs to avoid this In a healthy person, a standard blood glucose level is less than 108 mg dL or 6 mmol L on an empty abdomen Fiber rich meals additionally assist to maintain your blood sugar ranges steady, which may help forestall impulsive snacking and overeating at meals Some widespread whole grain meals are brown does high blood sugar levels cause headaches Blood Sugar Levels Chart By Age rice, quinoa, amaranth, oats, and whole grain bread.

You ve requested a page on a internet site wholesomealivecom that s on the sugar free red bull and blood pressire Cloudflare network Download a Nmd.mk sugar free red bull and blood pressire duplicate of the NDEP s Managing and Monitoring Diabetes to be taught more about managing diabetes If you miss a dose of your diabetes treatment, take it as quickly as you bear in mind, however don t double up by taking your missed medication too carefully to your next scheduled dose When doubtful, consult the guide on the packaging of the medication or look for its Food and Drug Administration medication guide If you miss a number of doses, contact your practitioner to debate one of the best plan of sugar free red bull and blood pressire action.

Medical units such as blood glucose screens and insulin pumps have gotten more important to the day to day management of diabetes for so much of Canadians If your blood sugar degree is too excessive and you re taking insulin, you might need to take need help controlling my blood sugar levels an extra dose of rapid or short acting insulin to return it to normal Your doctor can let you know how much insulin you should take to lower your blood sugar level.

Although having diabetes could not essentially improve your danger of contracting COVID 19, should you do get the virus, you usually have a tendency to have more severe problems What Causes Diabetes does high blood sugar levels cause headaches If you contract COVID 19, your blood sugars are more probably to improve as your physique is working to clear the an infection If you contract COVID 19, contact your healthcare team early to allow them to know.

This assault on the physique s personal cells is called autoimmune illness Scientists usually are not positive why the autoimmune assault happens Diabetes of every kind can 2 week old puppy and blood sugar levels result in problems in many elements of the physique and improve the overall danger of dying prematurely.

If you re managing your diabetes without taking sugar free red bull and blood pressire Normal Blood Sugar Levels Chart For Adults insulin, you could not have to verify your glucose as often For example, aTrialnet study printed in July 2018 inDiabetes Carelooked on the relations ofpeople with kind 1 diabeteswho didn t have the disease themselves however did have a quantity of optimistic autoantibodies It discovered that the next genetic risk rating helped predict sugar free red bull and blood pressire their development to growing sort 1 diabetes No kind of diabetes mellitus is genetic per se, but your DNA may influence your risk of developing it To regulate blood sugar ranges, try to eat roughly the identical quantity every single day, somewhat than overeating in the future or at one meal, after which skimping the next.

Assistance is obtainable to assist the patient develop optimistic coping methods It is estimated that sugar free red bull and blood pressire 23 million Americans will be diabetic by the 12 months 2030 The increasing prevalence of obesity coincides with the rising incidence of diabetes approx 45 of those diagnosed receive optimal care in accordance with established pointers According to the CDC, the NIH, and the ADA, about 40 of Americans between ages 40 and seventy four have prediabetes, placing them at increased danger for kind 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

Cutting again on sugary foods can imply a slimmer waistline as well as a decrease threat of diabetes If you or a liked one has been recognized with diabetes, study extra in regards to the steps you can take to assemble a diabetes care team If left untreated or improperly managed, prediabetes can result in type 2 diabetes and related issues.

Table of Contents